Liao, Han-Teng

1 St Giles, Oxford Internet Institute

Oxford OX1 3JS, UK

DPhil (PhD) in Information, Communication and the Social Sciences

Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford

Thesis title: “The Cultural Politics of User-Generated Encyclopedias: Comparing Chinese Wikipedia and Baidu Baike.”
Thesis supervisor: Ralph Schroeder
Thesis examiners: William H. Dutton and Mike Thelwall

Parts of the doctoral work have:

  • Won the OxTALENT Awards 2014 in the category of Interactive Infographics, as part of the Oxford University Teaching Awards Scheme.
  • Received the Best Student Paper Award, the 7th Chinese Internet Research Conference.
  • Been presented at various conferences of Internet Research, Chinese Studies and other related fields.
  • Been awarded fellowships/scholarships by institutions in Taipei, London, Washington D.C., Hong Kong and Berlin.
National Taiwan University (separate degrees) GPA 4.0 & 3.9
  • Master of Arts in Journalism (GPA 4.0). Thesis title: “From Commemorations to Carnivals: On Emergent Popular-Culture Nationalism in Taiwan”. Action researcher of the Institute’s online news platform.
  • Master of Science in Computer Science and Information Engineering (GPA 3.9). Thesis title: “Blog-Based Photo Management System”. A member of Digital Archives and Automated Reasoning Laboratory.
  • Exchange Program at Macquarie University (Media and Cultural Studies), February-December 2003.
National Taiwan University (double degree) GPA 3.9
  • Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
  • Bachelor of Arts in Foreign Languages and Literatures.
  • Exchange Program (Electrical Engineering & English) at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver Canada, for three semesters 1998-1999.
Summer Fellow, HIIG

The Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society (HIIG)

Summer Fellowship at the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, Berlin, Germany.

Yahoo! Fellow

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

Yahoo! Academic Fellowship, funded by the “Yahoo! International Values, Communications, Technology, and Global Internet Fellowship Fund” at Georgetown University.

  • Produced a working paper “Needing to have a voice” and constructed the “linguistic networked readiness” index for selected languages/dialects in India and China.
  • Initiated and engaged in discussions on the role of languages and places in Internet adoption and civic discussion by connecting research from website internationalization/localization (i18n/L10n), linguistic human rights and Information, Communications and Telecommunication Technologies for Development (ICT4D).
  • Organized the 9th Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2011) by working with the faculty members of Georgetown University and the conference committee members.
  • Prepared a course syllabus “Network Analysis for International Relations” designed for the master program of the School of Foreign Services (MSFS).
Short-term Research Consultant for the UK Office of Communications (Ofcom)

Provided consultancy service to Ofcom on the regulatory framework for illegal Internet content. Collected and analysed data on five countries in a research team of two.

Gap Year: Travels in India, Tibet and China

Learned how Internet technologies may work for different demographic and linguistic groups other than mine. Developed observation and communication skills in rural settings. Developed budgeting and planning skills for fieldwork. (This gap year was due to the mismatched dates for the completion of military service, the beginning of Oxford term, and the announcement of the Taiwan Merit Scholarship.)

Political Warfare Officer, National Defense

Served my compulsory military service as a battalion-level Political Warfare Officer and company-level Chief Counsellor (as the acting commander of the company for three months).

Project Manager, Open Source Software Foundry

Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica

Organized open-source software/content projects and events. Translated and advocated the ideas from the copy-left and free culture movement. Provided consultancy services to developers and the public. Developed an alternative notion of “creative industries”, presented at an international conference in Beijing and published in an international journal.

Action Researcher

Institute of Journalism, National Taiwan University

Lead other five junior students and built pilot Indymedia and blog website projects, which were among the first early-adopters of new media practices for news production in Taiwan.

Teaching Assistant

Institute of Journalism, National Taiwan University

Set up a digital video-editing studio and provided teaching instructions for the course “Digital-video news editing” taught by Leh-Chyun Lin (Taiwanese Public Television Service).

Freelance Writer

POTS, the alternative weekly in Taipei

Contributed reports, commentaries and book reviews, first as an intern and then as a free-lance writer.

Programmer (Chinese-language e-book)

Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan

Developed computer software that converted, for Chinese-language content, from Microsoft Word format into the open standard HTML format. Proposed and implemented the adoption plan by using then emergent W3C standards of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and Unicode standard of Chinese characters.

Part-time Programmer

Computer Centre, National Taiwan University

Built an information system for managing the mentor-student database with three other junior students as the team leader.

Honors & Awards
Honorable Mention, Chinese Internet Research Conference 2013

Awarded by the conference award committee for innovative methods.

Wikimedia UK Scholarship

Awarded by Wikimedia UK to participate in the Wikisym 2013 and Wikimania 2013.

Wikimedia UK Scholarship

Awarded together with Dr. Mark Graham by Wikimedia UK to participate in the Wikisym 2011 (the Seventh International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration), and recognized for engaging the public with data visualization on the impact of Wikipedia.

Doctoral Fellowship, Academia Sinica

Awarded with one year stipend and research support by the Humanities and Social Sciences Institutes at Academia Sinica, the highest national research institution in Taiwan. Wrote a paper on the cultural political implications on digital Hanzi (Chinese characters) at the Institute of Sociology, conducted fieldwork in Taiwan and mainland China and analysed webometric data collected from Baidu Baike and Chinese Wikipedia for GIS (Geographic Information System) visualization.

Best Student Paper Award, CIRC 2009

Awarded and honoured by the 7th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2009) for the paper presented at the Annenberg School for Communication at University of Pennsylvania.

TOChina Summer School

Awarded a full scholarship to attend the TOChina Summer School, organized by the Faculty of Political Science, University of Torino in Torino, Italy.

PGP Corporation and OII Scholarship

Awarded based “on academic merit … to high-calibre students to pursue individual projects in the Oxford Internet Institute’s doctoral program.”

Taiwan Merit Scholarships (TMS), Taiwanese government

Awarded the Taiwan Merit Scholarships (TMS), provided jointly by the main science, economic development and education government agencies of Taiwan, with the aim to “encourage outstandingly talented Taiwanese … to undertake studies or research in the world’s best academic institutions.”

Tiwu Wang Scholarship, United Daily News

Awarded twice (2001 and 2002) by a major print media in Taiwan, with the special honour to deliver a speech on “gossips and journalism” as the student representative at the award ceremony in 2002.

Peer-previewed publications
Liao, H.-T. (2014). What do Chinese-language microblog users do with Baidu Baike and Chinese Wikipedia? A case study of information engagement. In OpenSym ’14. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/2641580.2641611
Liao, H.-T., & Zhang, B. (2014). Chinese-language literature about Wikipedia: a meta-analysis of academic search engine result pages. In OpenSym ’14. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/2641580.2641617
Liao, H.-T. (2013). How do Baidu Baike and Chinese Wikipedia filter contribution? A case study of network gatekeeping. In Wikisym ’13. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/2491055.2491082
Liao, H.-T. (2013). How does localization influence online visibility of user-generated encyclopedias? A case study on Chinese-language Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs). In Wikisym ’13. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/2491055.2491083
Petzold, T., Liao, H.-T., Hartley, J., & Potts, J. (2012). A world map of knowledge in the making: Wikipedia’s inter-language linkage as a dependency explorer of global knowledge accumulation. Leonardo: Art, Science and Technology, 45(3), 284–284. doi:10.1162/LEON_a_00376
Liao, H.-T., & Petzold, T. (2010). Analysing geo-linguistic dynamics of the World Wide Web: The use of cartograms and network analysis to understand linguistic development in Wikipedia. Cultural Science, 3(2).
Liao, H.-T. (2009). Conflict and Consensus in the Chinese version of Wikipedia. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 28(2), 49–56. doi:10.1109/MTS.2009.932799
Liao H.-T. (2008). On academic freedom, governance, and collaboration: An “Internet Governance” perspective (論學術自由、治理、與合作:一個網際網路治理的觀點). Cultural Studies Monthly (文化研究月報), (82). Retrieved from
Liao H.-T. (2008). Forum: Open Source Textbook — Lessons from Wikipedia (論壇:開放式教科書—維基百科的啟示). Journal of Textbook Research (教科書研究), 1(2), 129–135. Retrieved from
Liao, H.-T. (2006). Towards creative da-tong: An alternative notion of creative industries for China. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9(3), 395–406. Retrieved from
Liao H.-T. (2003). From National Commemorations to Carnivals: A media event analysis of 1994-2003 New Year Eve Party (從開國紀念日到跨年狂歡: 以媒體事件觀點分析1994-2003台灣跨年晚會). Chinese Journal of Communication Research (中華傳播學刊), (3), 37–82.
Book chapter and encyclopedia articles
Liao, H.-T. (2014). “User Generated Content” (用户生成内容). In L. Cheng (Ed.), The Internet in China (First.). Great Barrington: Berkshire Publishing.
Petzold, T., & Liao, H.-T. (2011). Geo-linguistic analysis of the World Wide Web: The use of cartograms and network analysis to understand linguistic development in Wikipedia. In D. Araya, Y. Breindl, & T. J. Houghton (Eds.), Nexus: New Intersections in Internet Research (pp. 55–75). New York: Peter Lang.
Neighborly review journal publications

Published two “neighborly reviewed” articles based on interdisciplinary feedback that complements the traditional academic peer-review model.

Liao, H.-T. (2010). Politically and geographically colorful: Revolution, regime and color in China. GLIMPSE: The Art + Science of Seeing, 2(2). Retrieved from
Liao, H.-T. (2009). Are Chinese characters not modern enough?  An essay on their role online. GLIMPSE: The Art + Science of Seeing, 2(1), 16–24. Retrieved from

Working paper and other publications

Petzold, T., & Liao, H.-T. (2013). Governing a polyglot Internet: How decisions taken by the digital technology industry shape the future of languages. WZB-Mitteilungen, (141), 32–35. Retrieved from
Liao, H.-T. (2011). Needing to Have a Voice: Linguistic Grouping in the Digital Networked Environment (ISD Working Papers in New Diplomacy). Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.  Georgetown University.
Liao H.-T. (2003). Sewage and Fibre Network: SARS reminds us of human contact (下水道與光纖: SARS重拾人的接觸). Cultural Studies Monthly (文化研究月報), (29). Retrieved from

Academic Initiatives and Duties
Academic initiatives
Liao, H.-T., Fu, K., Jiang, M., & Wang, N. (2014). Guest editor. Special issue proposal “Social Data Science and the Chinese Web” accepted by the journal “Policy and Internet,” Oxford, UK. Retrieved from
Liao, H.-T., Fu, K., Jiang, M., & Wang, N. (2013, June 15). Panel organizer. Panel initiated for the CIRC 2013, with a working paper titled “Chinese Web Data: Definition, Uses, and Scholarship” presented at the Panel: How to use (or misuse) Chinese Web data: Methodological, ethical and practical research concerns, Oxford, UK.
Liao, H.-T. (2011, October 28). Workshop organizer. Working as the co-organizer (with Dr. Thomas Petzold, Professor John Hartley, and Mr Scott Hale), as presented at the Workshop on language industry, the 1st Berlin Sympoisum on Internet and Society, Berlin, Germany.
Academic duties
Liao, Han-Teng. 2013. “Paper Reviewer for the Special Issue of ‘The Internet, Social Networks and Civic Engagement in Chinese Societies’ Information, Communication & Society.”
Liao, Han-Teng. 2012. “Program Committee.” Presented at the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym 2012), Linz, Austria.
Liao, Han-Teng. 2011. “Panel Chair of the ‘Identities and Cultures’ Session by Invitation.” Presented at the iCS-OII 2011 symposium, “A Decade in Internet Time,” Oxford, UK.
Liao, Han-Teng. 2011. “Conference Organizer of the 9th Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2011).” Presented at the “Chinese Factors in Internet Development: Global Public Goods, National Policies, and Private Interests” (CIRC 2011), Washington DC, US.
Liao, Han-Teng. 2009. “Paper Reviewer.” Presented at the IEEE Technology and Society.
Chinese Internet research
Liao, H.-T. (2014, June 21). Chinese cultural thickening and web spheres: A few results and conjectures on the status of the Chinese cultural sphere. Presented at the 12th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2014), Hong Kong.
Zhang, B., & Liao, H.-T. (2014, June 21). Academic search for Chinese-language literatures: Assessing the distribution of academic authority, platform visibility and geolinguistic preferences. Presented at the 12th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2014), Hong Kong.
Liao, H.-T., Fu, K., Jiang, M., & Wang, N. (2013, June 15). Chinese Web Data: Definition, Uses, and Scholarship. Presented at the 11th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2013), Oxford, UK.
Liao, H.-T. (2013). How does Chinese localization influence online visibility? A study on Chinese-language Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs). Presented at the 11th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2013), Oxford, UK.
Nigh, A., & Liao, H.-T. (2011). Linguistic Networked Readiness Index for selected languages in China. In 9th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2011). Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.  Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
Liao, H.-T. (2009). Special speech zones and diversity in the Chinese-written Internet. In 7th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2009). Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, US.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). Chinese-written Internet: diversity and segregation. In 6th Annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC 2008). The Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Chinese Studies, Taiwan Studies and Area Studies
Liao, H.-T. (2011). The cultural politics of user-generated encyclopedias: Comparing Chinese Wikipedia and Baidu Baike. In 4th International Forum for Contemporary China Studies (IFCCS4). UK: University of Nottingham.
Liao, H.-T. (2011). The cultural politics of user-generated encyclopedias: Comparing Chinese Wikipedia and Baidu Baike. In Digital East Asia conference 2011. Hague, the Netherlands: the Modern East Asia Research Centre (MEARC) at Leiden University.
Liao, H.-T. (2010). Diffusion of innovation in the Chinese-written Internet: replacing early adopters. In Networks in Chinese Society. Oxford UK: Pembroke College.
Liao, H.-T. (2010). Selective Diffusion of the ICT development in East Asia. In Annual Conference of European Association of Taiwan Studies (EATS). Tubingen, Germany.
Liao, H.-T. (2010). Diffusion of Digital Hanzi (Chinese Characters) technology in East Asia. In IOS- IASA Joint Workshop of Young Sociologists. Taipei: Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica.
Liao, H.-T. (2009). From Standard Follower to Network Player: Taiwan’s Place in the World's Internet. In 15th Annual North American Taiwan Studies Conference. Austin, Texas US: University of Texas at Austin.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). How the two Chinese online encyclopaedias document the Olympic flame relay. In Documenting the Beijing Olympics. SOAS, University of London.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). Redefining Chinese Internet and cyber-nationalism: the case of the Chinese version of Wikipedia. In China Postgraduate Network. Oxford UK: Institute of Chinese Studies.
Internet research
Liao, H.-T. (2011). Keyword economy of the Web: Seeking order in open linguistic materials. In Theorizing the Web Conference 2011. College Park, MD.
Liao, H.-T. (2010). User-generated Encyclopedia as Critical Case of Keyword Economy. In Critical Point Of View: Wikiwars. Bangalore, India: the Centre for Internet and Society.
Liao, H.-T. (2009). The plausibility of estimating linguistic diversity using online encyclopedias. In WebSci’09: Society On-Line. Greece: Athens.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). How Wiki can exploit linguistic diversity. In WikiSym 2008. New York: ACM.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). A webometric comparison of Chinese Wikipedia and Baidu Baike and its implications for understanding the Chinese-speaking Internet. In 9th annual Internet Research Conference: Rethinking Community, Rethinking Place. Copenhagen.
Media/Communication and Globalization research
Liao, H.-T., & Petzold, Thomas. (2014). The Global Connectivity Gamble. In Inverting Globalisation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Centre for Globalisation Studies (ACGS), University of Amsterdam.
Liao, H.-T. (2010). Keyword Economy: Search engines as techno-linguistic artefacts. In 60th Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association. Singapore.
Liao H.-T. (2008). On “Dai- tong”/Commons: An Internet construct (論帶同: 一個互聯網的建構概念). In 10th Annual Conference of Communication Association of China. Shenzhen, China.
Science & Technology in Society
Liao, H.-T. (2011). Linguistic Networked Readiness and Its Policy Implications: Selected Cases in India and China. In 11th Annual Conference on Science & Technology in Society. Washington DC.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). Using Wikimedia’s resources for learning Mandarin Chinese. In Languages of the wider world: valuing diversity. SOAS, University of London.
Liao, H.-T. (2008). Conflictual consensus in the Chinese version of Wikipedia. In 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS 08). Fredericton, Canada.
Lectures, Invited Speeches and Public Engagement
Speaking experiences

Lectures, short courses and invited speeches on various occasions in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao and the US.

Liao, H.-T. (2013, August 13). Geo-linguistic Realities and  “Imaginary Cosmopolitanism”: Repurposing filter bubble devices for new (cross-cultural) literacies. Invited speech presented at the Faculty Research Theme: L1 & L2 Academic Literacies, the Faculty of Education Hong Kong University.
Liao H.-T. (2012, November 25). Critical numbers of Taiwan: Using open data to show inequality in tax policies (台灣關鍵數字: 中產階級與租稅體制). Invited speech presented at the regular meetings organized by Peng Ming-hui (彭明輝), a retired Tsing Hua professor, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.
Liao, H.-T. (2012, April 25). Visualizing and understanding how online language areas are made and interconnected. Invited speech presented at the Department of English Lecture Series, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Macau.
Liao, H.-T. (2012, March 23). All the News That’s Fit to Click: Journalism on the Web. Invited speech presented at the JMSC Media Research Seminar series, Journalism and Media Studies Centre at the University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from
Liao, H.-T. (2011, May 4). Is the Internet Ready to Serve its Next Constituencies? The Linguistic Networked Readiness Report: Languages in India and China. Lecture presented at the ISD 2010-2011 Yahoo! Fellow Speech, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
Liao, H.-T. (2011, October 7). Comparative Results of Chinese Wikipedia and Baidu Baike. Invited speech & Q/A presented at the meetings with Wikimedia staff, the Wikimedia Foundation, San Francisco US.
Liao, H.-T. (2009, December 17). Commons-based peer-production for Library Automation (in Chinese). Invited guest lecture on the implications of open source and open data movement for digital archives and libraries, Department of Library & Information Science, National Taiwan University.
Liao, H.-T. (2007, August 6–10). Library Archive and Free Information Movement (in Chinese). Invited speech presented at the Library Collections and Free Information Courses, Library Association of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Liao, H.-T. (2006, August 21–25). Open content licenses (in Chinese). Invited speech presented at the Courses on Archive, management and application of Digital Content, Library Association of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Public engagement

Selected newspaper articles (including two headline op-ed pieces) and popular science work.

Liao H.-T. (2013, October). Wikimedia’s commitment and efforts as digital “public media” (Chinese: 維基媒體作為數位「公共媒體」的決心和努力). Media Digest (Chinese: 傳媒透視) by Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK; Chinese 香港電台), 8–9. Retrieved from
Liao H.-T. (2011, May 24). US Cyberspace strategy: new opportunities for Taiwan but missed by both presidential candidates(台灣新國際空間 雙英看不到). Apple Daily (蘋果日報). Taipei. Retrieved from
Liao H.-T. (2010, March 25). Google’s exit from mainland China: Google's Long March or Defeat? (谷歌長征 流竄 或偏安). Apple Daily (蘋果日報). Taipei. Retrieved from
Liao H.-T. (2009). The First Class for the Internet (網際網路的第一堂課). In First Annual Social and Applied Popular Science Writing Contest (第一屆社會暨應用科學科普寫作獎). The Almanac of Taiwan Literature Research Resources (台灣文學年鑑).

Skills and Expertise
Research Skills
  • Internet Research and methods;
  • Webometrics; Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
  • Social Network Analysis; GIS Applications
  • Content Analysis; Data Visualization
Generic Skills
  • Teaching; Advising students
  • Public Speaking
  • Editing; Blogging
  • Grant proposal writing; Project management
  • Chinese Internet; Chinese Web data; Information Science in China and Taiwan
  • User-generated content; Wikipedia research
  • Open Data; Open Source; Open Knowledge
  • New Literacies, Digital Media; Social Media; E-Learning
  • Software internationalization-localization (i18n/L10n); Geo-targeting; Digital Chinese characters
  • Social implications of Digital Archive and Digital Humanities
Research Training for the Study of Virtual Work

Proof of participation in the IS1202 Training School on Virtual Work, University of Malta, 16-20 September 2013

Certificate of Digital Humanities Training

Certified by the Digital.Humanities@Oxford Summer School (DHOxSS), University of Oxford. The focus of the workshop training: “Cultural Connections: exchanging knowledge and widening participation in the Humanities”

Certificate of Digital Methods Training

Certified by the DMI (Digital Methods Initiative) Training Certificate Program, University of Amsterdam. The focus of the training: “On the challenges of studying social media data”

Certificate of Professional Training for Social Scientists

On strategic thinking and project management, issued by Oxford Said Business school

Certificate of Participation: TOChina Summer School

Awarded by the Department of Culture, Politics and Society of the University of Torino for the successful completion of the program “TOChina Summer School”

Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

Certified by Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU), People’s Republic of China

Upper 1st Level of Mandarin Chinese

Certified by the authorities in Beijing, People’s Republic of China, on Mandarin Chinese speaking and listening proficiency

Timeline Overview
Timeline Infographics

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